Viglinks

Monday, March 7, 2016

Push and Pull Theory of Migration * 70

Understanding the Push and Pull of Immigration 


Generally the push pull theory like water finds its own level. Thus international migration takes place from poor to rich countries. Generally the migrants are poor labourers who may be skilled or unskilled. The pull for a better life and income acts as the impetus for migration. Migration has been going on for thousands of years and now only it has become stylized

Immigration means the action of coming to live permanently in a foreign country. It is not a new phenomenon, but has historical roots from ancient times. The Aryans migrated from Central Asia to distant lands. The main issue of migration at that time was the search for food. In modern times migration is governed by the push-pull theory. This theory also explains ancient migration. The Push-pull theory was enunciated by Jagdish Bhagwati. Many other scholars also studied and amplified this theory. There is a parallel theory by Alejandro Portes and Jozsef Borocz, who though agreeing in part with Bhagwatis theory are of the opinion that international migration is a product of past historical development. 

The push-pull theory has two distinct parts. Firstly there is the push to migrate. There are many reasons for this and could include war in the home country and its resultant effect. War could lead to a shattering of economy, making life difficult for the inhabitants. With a bad economy, no jobs are available. This gives the impetus to a population or people to migrate away from the homeland. The pull can be explained with the desire for a better economic status. Thus Australia has the pull for immigrants from most countries with the promise of a better life. In addition better living conditions with a salubrious climate will act as the pull for migrants Generally the push pull theory like water finds its own level.

 International migration takes place from poor to rich countries. Generally the migrants are poor labourers who may be skilled or unskilled. The pull for a better life and income acts as the impetus for migration. This is conditioned by the lure for better facilities like schools and education for their children.

 Just as pull factor operate so do the push factors. As an example in developed countries age and birth rates are going down. This has a negative effect as unskilled labor is needed to supplement the domestic labor force. Though technology advancement makes most work automated, yet the requirement of skilled or semi killed workers is a requirement. This need for workers acts as a pull factor in modern migration. The USA is a rich country and attracts migrants from the poorer nations.

 Similarly Bangladesh destitute finds it convenient to migrate to India which has a relatively sounder economy. Poverty of the Bangladesh population is the push factor for migration to India. In olden days these push and pull factors operated through slavery. The need for cheap labor in America led to mass scale movement of human capital as slaves from Africa to America. With the onset of globalization, slavery has been banished, but immigration still follows the pull and push theory.

In the light of the above the present exodus to Europe  by Muslims from Midddle East is in line with the classical theory of migration and may not be stopped. No action can stem this influx as conditions are created that force a entire population to migrate like war and hunger